If you suspect you are suffering from allergies, talk with your health care provider about allergy testing. A simple series of tests may help pinpoint your particular allergens. It is not unusual for the first encounter with the allergen to produce a mild reaction, but if you are susceptible subsequent exposures can increase sensitivity to the danger point. Talk to your health care provider if you suspect you may be at risk for a serious allergic reaction.
Allergy testing involves having a skin or blood test to find out what substance may trigger an allergic response. Skin tests are usually done because they are rapid, reliable, and generally less expensive than blood tests, but either type of test may be used.
A small amount of a suspected allergen is placed on or below the skin to see if a reaction develops. There are three types of skin tests:
- Skin prick test. This test is done by placing a drop of a solution containing a possible allergen on the skin, and a series of scratches or needle pricks allows the solution to enter the skin. If the skin develops a red, raised itchy area (called a wheal); it usually means that the person is allergic to that allergen. This is called a positive reaction.
- Intradermal test. During this test, a small amount of the allergen solution is injected into the skin. An intradermal allergy test may be done when a substance does not cause a reaction in the skin prick test but is still suspected as an allergen for that person. The intradermal test is more sensitive than the skin prick test but is more often positive in people who do not have symptoms to that allergen (false-positive test results).
- Skin patch test. For a skin patch test, the allergen solution is placed on a pad that is taped to the skin for 24 to 72 hours.
Allergy blood tests look for substances in the blood called antibodies. Blood tests are not as sensitive as skin tests but are often used for people who are not able to have skin tests.